P.M.C. de Boer
http://repub.eur.nl/ppl/3014/
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RePub, Erasmus University RepositoryThe Generalized Fisher Index: the Generic Formulae of Siegel and of Shapley
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/23798/
Mon, 04 Jul 2011 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
In the framework of a multiplicative decomposition Ang et al. (2004) proposed to use in index decomposition analysis (IDA) a generalized Fisher approach. They based their formulae for the decomposition of an aggregate change in a variable in three or four factors on the generic formula that Shapley (1953) derived for his value of n-person games and mention that Siegel (1945) gave their formulae using a different route. De Boer (2009a) proved that input-output structural decomposition analysis (SDA) is equivalent to the generalized Fisher approach for the decompositions in two, three and four factors. Using Siegel’s formula, he provided tables from which the decomposition of an aggregate change in a variable in five or six factors can easily be derived. In this paper we give the complicated generic formulae of Siegel and of Shapley and show how to implement them in case of four factors. The formulae are used to derive the tables for decompositions in seven and eight factors.Predicting negative effects of the second intifada: an ex-post evaluation of some models
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/20279/
Tue, 01 Jun 2010 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>M. Missaglia</div>
In 2003, the World Bank (WB), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and de Boer and Missaglia (DBM) constructed models for the estimation of the 2002 macro-economic indicators of the economy of Palestine. In 2007, IMF and WB provided the consensus estimates of these figures using data that are more up-to-date and more complete than those available in 2003. This note proposes an ex-post evaluation of the predictive performance of the models of WB, DBM and IMF. A comparison of the models of WB and DBM, which are both micro-founded computable general equilibrium models using the same data, reveals that DBM strongly outperforms WB. We argue that the shortening of the time horizon and the quantity adjustment following the dramatic shock explain why our model performs much better. A comparison of DBM with IMF (a simple macro-founded income-expenditure model) also shows that our model performs better.Testing non-nested demand relations: linear expenditure system versus indirect addilog
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/16317/
Sat, 01 Aug 2009 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
In applied economic research computable general equilibrium (CGE) models in which the behavior of economic agents are modeled, are widely used. In many CGE models, the linear expenditure system (LES) is used to model the behavior of the household sector. The disadvantage of LES is that the Engel curves, describing the relationship between expenditure on a certain commodity and total expenditure, are straight lines. Moreover, the LES does not allow for the existence of inferior commodities, elastic demand and gross substitution. An alternative model for the household block is the indirect addilog system (IAS), which is as simple to implement as LES, but which does not suffer from these theoretical deficiencies. In this paper, we test the LES specification against the IAS specification in case one disposes of a budget survey. Consequently, IAS provides a theoretically richer description of household behavior than LES, while it is also easy to implement.
It is not possible to use a standard likelihood ratio test as both models are not nested. We propose to use the likelihood ratio test for non-nested hypotheses due to Vuong [(1989), Likelihood ratio tests for model selection and non-nested hypotheses, Econometrica 57, 307–333.] or, alternatively, the distribution-free test due to Clarke [(2007), A simple distribution-free test for nonnested model selection, Political Analysis 15, 347–363.]. We apply both tests to the Palestinian Expenditure and Consumption Survey [PECS (2005), Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics, Ramallah, Palestine.] and find that there is overwhelming evidence that the IAS specification is to be preferred to the LES specification.Testing Non-nested Demand Relations: Linear Expenditure System versus Indirect Addilog
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/15564/
Tue, 21 Apr 2009 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>R. Paap</div>
In applied economic research computable general equilibrium [CGE] models in which the behavior of economic agents are modeled, are widely used.
In many CGE models, the Linear Expenditure System [LES] is used to model behavior of the household sector. The disadvantage of LES is that the Engel curves, describing the relationship between expenditure on a certain commodity and total expenditure, are straight lines. Moreover, the LES does not allow for the existence of inferior commodities, elastic demand and gross substitution. An alternative model for the household block is the Indirect Addilog System [IAS] which is as simple to implement as LES, but which does not suffer from these theoretical deficiencies. Consequently, IAS provides a theoretically richer description of household behavior than LES, while it is as easy to implement.
In this paper we test the LES specification against the IAS specification in case one disposes of a budget survey. It is not possible to use a standard likelihood ratio test as both models are not nested. We propose to use the likelihood ratio test for non-nested hypotheses due to Vuong (1989), or, alternatively, the distribution-free test due to Clarke (2007). We apply both tests to the Palestinian Expenditure and Consumption Survey (PECS, 2005) and find that there is overwhelming evidence that the IAS specification is to be preferred to the LES specification.Modeling household behavior in a CGE model: linear expenditure system or indirect addilog?
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/18250/
Thu, 01 Jan 2009 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
We try to argue that in a computable general equilibrium model, household preferences should be modeled by the indirect addilog system (IAS) rather than by the frequently used linear expenditure system (LES). Both systems have the same data requirement and are as easy to implement, but IAS provides for a richer description of preferences. Contrarily to LES, its Engel curves are non-linear and it allows for inferior commodities, elastic demand and gross substitution. LES assigns zero utility to households with expenditure below a positive minimum value, whereas IAS assigns a positive utility, provided zero expenditure is replaced by a small positive number. In micro simulation models where the results of a macro CGE model (with one representative household) are used at micro level, this constitutes a clear advantage of IAS. In the framework of an expenditure survey, we find overwhelming statistical evidence that the IAS indirect utility function is likely to be (much) closer to the true indirect utility function than LES. Consequently, expenditure elasticities and welfare changes are likely to be (much) better estimated by IAS. Simulations with a CGE model for Palestine show that price responses and equivalent variation are considerably higher for IAS than for LES.Lack of peaceful resolution with Israel: economic cost for Palestinians
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/13775/
Mon, 10 Nov 2008 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
We propose to estimate the economic cost for Palestine and for Palestinian residents due to the lack of peaceful resolution with Israel. Thereto we make use of the consensus estimates of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) of real growth rates of economic variables and of the nominal national accounts for Palestine over the period 1994-2006. We identify four periods: 1994-1999 with high real growth rates of gross domestic product (GDP) and of gross national income (GNI); 2000-2002 with a strong decline; 2003-2005 with a modest growth; and 2006 with a renewed decline. We derive the real national accounts (prices1999) for the end years: 1999, 2002 and 2005. It follows that over 2000-2002 the real GDP declined by 27.5%; GNI by almost one third; but that real gross disposable income (GDI) “only” declined by 11.3%; and that over 2000-2005 the declines were 13.8% (GDP) ; about 20%(GNI); and 2.9% (GDI), respectively. Consequently, in 2005, the year preceding the renewed isolation of Palestine, real GDP, GNI and GDI were still below their 1999 level. Based on the modest growth scenario of IMF and WB (3% real growth and 3% price increase) we estimate that over the period 2000-2002 the cost for Palestine, measured in terms of nominal GNI, was equal to the GNI of 1999 (5.5 billion US$), and over 2000-2005 to two-and-a-half times the 1999 GNI. Based on the same growth scenario, we estimate the loss for a Palestinian resident, measured in terms of nominal GDI per capita, to be 30% of the 1999 level by the end of 2002 and 25% by the end of 2005.Energy decomposition analysis: the generalized Fisher index revisited
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/13049/
Thu, 21 Aug 2008 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
It is generally believed that index decomposition analysis (IDA) and input-output structural decomposition analysis (SDA) (Rose and Casler, 1996; Dietzenbacher and Los, 1998) are different approaches in energy studies; see for instance Ang, Liu and Chung (2004). In this paper it is shown that the generalized Fisher approach, introduced in IDA by Ang, c.s. (2004) for the decomposition of an aggregate change in a variable in factors is equivalent to SDA. They base their formulae on the very complicated generic formula that Shapley (1953) derived for his value of n-person games, and mention that Siegel (1945) gave their formulae using a different route. In this paper tables are given from which the formulae of the generalized Fisher approach can easily be derived for the cases of factors. It is shown that these tables can easily be extended to cover the cases of r=5 and r=6 factors.Additive structural decomposition analysis and index number theory: An empirical application of the Montgomery decomposition
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/14234/
Sat, 01 Mar 2008 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
In recent years, a large number of empirical articles on structural decomposition analysis, which aims at disentangling an aggregate change in a variable into its r factors, has been published in this journal. Commonly used methods are the average of the two polar decompositions and the average of all r! elementary decompositions (Dietzenbacher and Los, 1998, D&L). We propose to use instead the 'ideal' Montgomery decomposition, which means that it satisfies the requirement of factor reversal imposed in index number theory. We prefer it to the methods previously mentioned. The average of the two polar decompositions is not 'ideal', so that the outcome depends on the ordering of the factors. The average of all elementary decompositions is 'ideal', but requires the computation of an ever increasing number of decompositions when the number of factors increases. Application to the example of D&L (four factors) shows that the three methods yield results that are close to each other.Economic consequences of intifada: a sequel
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/10558/
Fri, 28 Sep 2007 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>M. Missaglia</div>
We give an assessment of the loss in the nominal gross domestic product (GDP) and nominal gross national income (GNI) due to twenty- seven months of intifada. It is based on the modest growth scenario given by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (WB) in their first assessment of the economic developments in 2006 in Palestine. It turns out that the assessed loss is equivalent to the GDP of 1997 and the GNI in 1999: one year on two (and a quarter). Moreover, we show that our 2004 estimates of macro figures of 2002, based on a static computable general equilibrium model, are closer to the 2007 consensus estimates by IMF and WB than the 2003 estimates of IMF, based on an income-expenditure model. We argue that the shortening of the time horizon and the quantity adjustment following the dramatic shock explain why our model performs better.Multiplicative decomposition and index number theory: an empirical application of the Sato-Vartia decomposition
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/10091/
Fri, 11 May 2007 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
Abstract In De Boer (2006) the additive decomposition of the aggregate change in a variable into its factors was considered. I proposed to use the "ideal" Montgomery decomposition, developed in index number theory, rather than the commonly used methods in structural decomposition analysis and applied it to the example analyzed by Dietzenbacher and Los (1998) (D&L). In this paper I consider the multiplicative decomposition and argue that from a theoretical point of view the "ideal" Sato-Vartia decomposition is to be preferred to the geometric average of the polar decompositions and that from a computational point of view it is to be preferred to the geometric average of all elementary decompositions. Application to the example of D&L reveals that the three methods yield results that are very close to each other.Structural decomposition analysis and index number theory: an empirical application of the Montgomery decomposition.
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/8011/
Thu, 28 Sep 2006 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div>
Abstract In recent years a large number of empirical articles on structural decomposition analysis, which aims at disentangling an aggregate change into its factors, has been published in Economic Systems Research. Dietzenbacher and Los (D&L) proved that in case of n factors the number of possible decompositions is equal to n!, non of which satisfies time reversal. Averages of decompositions satisfy this requirement, such as the average of all decompositions. In index number theory this problem is known as the decomposition of an aggregate change into symmetric factors (usually two: price and quantity). Balk proposes to generalize the Montgomery decomposition, which obeys time reversal, to three factors. In this paper we apply this solution to a more intricate decomposition into four factors, viz. the example analyzed by D&L. We show that for most sectors the results of the Montgomery decomposition are remarkably close to those of the average of the 24 decompositions.Theoretical restrictions on the parameters of the indirect addilog system revisited
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/7757/
Thu, 11 May 2006 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>J. Brocker</div><div>B.S. Jensen</div><div>J. van Daal</div>
The correct parameter restrictions- less restrictive than commonly thought-of the indirect addilog system (IAS) are derived. Under correct restrictions, the IAS is superior to the linear expenditure system in computable general equilibrium models with data scarcity.Estimation of income elasticities and their use in a CGE model in Palestine
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/7753/
Mon, 01 May 2006 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>M. Missaglia</div>
A popular functional form for modeling the consumption block of a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) is the Linear Expenditure System (LES) for which the Engel curves are straight lines. The LES does not allow for the existence of inferior commodities, elastic demand and for gross substitution. To calibrate the parameters outside information on income elasticities and on the expenditure elasticity of the marginal utility of expenditure (Frisch parameter) is needed. In this paper we propose to use the Indirect Addilog System (IAS) that allows for non-straight Engel curves, inferior commodities, elastic demand and gross substitution, and for which the outside data requirement is the same as for LES. In the empirical part we estimate the income elasticities of the IAS from the 1998 Palestinian Expenditure and Consumption Survey (PECS). We replace the LES consumption block with a priori fixed income elasticities of the CGE model, that we previously constructed for Palestine based on the 1998 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM), by the IAS with estimated income elasticities and perform a sensitivity analysis for the choice of the Frisch parameter. A comparison with the results obtained by the LES-model with the same income elasticities makes it possible to further clarify the importance of using a IAS to represent consumption behaviors.Economic consequences of intifada
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/19274/
Wed, 01 Mar 2006 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>M. Missaglia</div>
Abstract
In 2003 the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) published estimates of macro-economic indicators for 2002 of the economy of Palestine. The WB used a micro-founded recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, calibrated on the 1998 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Palestine, to which shocks were applied, whereas the IMF based its estimates on a macro-founded income-expenditure model relying on more recent data. It turned out that there were substantial differences: the estimate by the WB of the real gross national income (at 1998 prices) was 25% less than the corresponding figure calculated by the IMF. This huge difference is not only relevant for a full understanding of the economic consequences of the intifada, but also for the size of the international community intervention. In this paper we propose our own evaluation with the help of a static CGE model, based on the 1998 SAM and the so-called intifada shock derived from data of the WB that we constructed for the analysis of some forms of emergency assistance in a previous article. It turns out that our estimates, based on an entirely different methodology, are remarkably close to those of the IMF.Ridge regression revisited
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/6919/
Wed, 31 Aug 2005 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>C.M. Hafner</div>
We argue in this paper that general ridge (GR) regression implies no major complication compared with simple ridge regression. We introduce a generalization of an explicit GR estimator derived by Hemmerle and by Teekens and de Boer and show that this estimator, which is more conservative, performs better than the Hoerl and Kennard estimator in terms of a weighted quadratic loss criterion.Introducing the indirect addilog system in a computable general equilibrium model: a case study for Palestine
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/6851/
Wed, 01 Jun 2005 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>M. Missaglia</div>
A popular functional form for modeling the consumption block of a computable general equilibrium model (CGE) is the Linear Expenditure System (LES) for which the Engel curves are straight lines. To allow for more general shapes two other systems have been proposed in recent literature: An Implicitly Directly Additive Demand System (AIDADS, a generalization of LES) and the Specialized Constant Differences of Elasticities (CDE) system. To calibrate the parameters outside information on all income elasticities and all own price elasticities is needed, whereas LES only requires information on income elasticities and the Frisch parameter. In this paper we consider a special case of CDE, the Indirect Addilog System (IAS) that allows for non-straight Engel curves, whereas its outside data requirement is the same as for LES. The only disadvantage is that all cross price elasticities of a particular price are the same. In many developing countries there is hardly any information on price responses so that the AIDADS and CDE cannot be used. We propose the use of IAS rather than LES. In the empirical part we use IAS in a CGE model for Palestine and show that predictions of macro-economic indicators are remarkably close to those of IMF.Economic consequences of intifada
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/6563/
Wed, 25 May 2005 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>M. Missaglia</div>
In 2003 the World Bank (WB) and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) published estimates of macro-economic indicators for 2002 of the economy of Palestine. WB used a micro-founded recursive dynamic computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, calibrated on the 1998 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) of Palestine, to which shocks were applied, whereas IMF based its estimates on a macro-founded income-expenditure model relying on more recent data. It turned out that there were substantial differences: the estimate by WB of the real Gross National Income (at 1998 prices) was 25% less than the corresponding figure calculated by IMF. This huge difference is not only relevant for a full understanding of the economic consequences of the intifada, but also for the size of the international community intervention. In this paper we propose our own evaluation with the help of a static CGE model, based on the 1998 SAM and the so-called intifada shock derived from data of WB, that we constructed for the analysis of some forms of emergency assistance in a previous article. It turns out that our estimates, based on an entirely different methodology, are remarkably close to those of IMF.Trade liberalization and the allocation over domestic and foreign supplies: a case study for Spanish manufacturing
http://repub.eur.nl/pub/1545/
Thu, 13 Aug 1998 00:00:01 GMT<div>P.M.C. de Boer</div><div>C. Martinez</div><div>R. Harkema</div>
The purpose of the present paper is to investigate whether Spain's accession
to the European Union in 1986 caused a structural break in the allocation of total supplies of manufactures over domestic and foreign supplies. To that end we use the homogeneity-constrained Almost Ideal Demand System to
specify the long-run equilibrium relationships between the shares in total supplies and total real demand and relative prices and a first-order error correction mechanism in order to describe the adjustment process to equilibrium. Using a formal statistical test, it turns out that a
structural break actually occurred and led to a rather sharp decrease in the share of Spain and an increase in the shares of the other members of the European Union.