In response to the failure of Zeelenberg, Plomp, and Raaijmakers (2003) to replicate the results of Seamon, Luo, and Gallo (1998) regarding their purported finding of a reliable false memory effect in the absence of memory for the list items, Gallo and Seamon (2004) report a new experiment that they claim shows that conscious activation of a related lure during study is not necessary for its subsequent recognition. We critically evaluate their conclusion and argue that the evidence clearly shows that false recognition is critically dependent on the conscious recollection of one or more of the list items. Thus, this as well as the previous experiments show no evidence for nonconscious processes in producing false memories.

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Keywords false memory
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Raaijmakers, J.G.W, & Zeelenberg, R. (2003). Evaluating the evidence for nonconscious processes in producing false memories:Reply to Gallo and Seamon. Retrieved from