Dopamine (DA)-agonist targeting of the DA D2 receptor (D2R) in prolactinomas is the first-line treatment choice for suppression of prolactin and induction of tumor shrinkage. Resistance to DA agonists seems to be related to receptor number. Using the MMQ and GH3 pituitary cell lines, that either do or do not express D2R, respectively, we explored the epigenetic profile associated with the presence or absence of D2R in these cells lines. These studies led us to explore pharmacological strategies designed to restore receptor expression and thereby potentially augment DA agonistmediated apoptosis. We show in GH3 cells that the D2R harbors increased CpG island-associated methylation and enrichment for histone H3K27me3. Conversely,MMQcells and normal pituitaries show enrichment for H3K9Ac and barely detectable H3K27me3. Coculture of GH3 cells with the demethylating agent zebularine and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A was responsible for a decrease in CpG island methylation and enrichment for the histone H3K9Ac mark. In addition, challenge of GH3 cells with zebularine alone or coculture with both agents led to expression of endogenous D2R in these cells. Induced expression D2R in GH3 cells was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis indices to challenge with either DA or bromocriptine. Specificity of a receptor-mediated response was established in coincubations with specific D2R antagonist and siRNA approaches in GH3 cell and D2R expressingMMQcell lines. These studies point to the potential efficacy of combined treatment with epigenetic drugs and DA agonists for the medical management of different pituitary tumor subtypes, resistant to conventional therapies.

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Keywords apoptosis, article, cell line, cell strain GH3, coculture, dopamine receptor, dopamine receptor stimulating agent, epigenetics, histone, histone deacetylase inhibitor, human, hypophysis cell, methylation, priority journal, prolactinoma, protein expression, small interfering RNA, trichostatin A, tumor volume, zebularine
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1210/en.2010-0886, hdl.handle.net/1765/23466
Citation
Al-Azzawi, H, Yacqub-Usman, K, Richardson, A, Hofland, L.J, Clayton, R.N, & Farrell, W.E. (2011). Reversal of endogenous dopamine receptor silencing in pituitary cells augments receptor-mediated apoptosis. Endocrinology, 152(2), 364–373. doi:10.1210/en.2010-0886