During online hemodiafiltration, patients are directly infused with sterile substitution solutions to maintain fluid balance. Adequate water treatment and a well-organized quality control process are essential to provide non-pyrogenic fluids with consistent optimal quality. We sought to assess water quality, the water treatment system, and the methods for surveillance of microbiological water quality in 10 Dutch dialysis centers that routinely treat patients with hemodiafiltration. Microbiological monitoring results (micro-organisms and endotoxins) were collected over a 1-year period representing 11,258 hemodiafiltration sessions covering 97 patients. In all centers, water purification was based on a reverse osmosis module in combination with a second reverse osmosis and/or an electrodeionizer. All centers regularly and routinely monitored the microbiological purity of the dialysis water with adequate analytical methods but with variable monitoring frequency. Microbiological assessments were compliant with reference quality levels in 3923 of 3961 samples. Our study suggests that non-pyrogenic substitution fluids can be produced online for a prolonged period of time. It is likely that the current Dutch Quality of Care Guideline has contributed to high-quality water treatment and a well-organized control process.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Hemodiafiltration, Microbiological contamination, Quality control, Reverse osmosis, Safety, Ultrapure
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1038/ki.2009.245, hdl.handle.net/1765/24563
Journal Kidney International
Penne, E.L, Visser, L, van den Dorpel, M.A, van der Weerd, N.C, Mazairac, A.H.A, van Jaarsveld, B.C, … Grooteman, M.P.C. (2009). Microbiological quality and quality control of purified water and ultrapure dialysis fluids for online hemodiafiltration in routine clinical practice. Kidney International, 76(6), 665–672. doi:10.1038/ki.2009.245