An oligonucleotide-based assay (OBA) was used to identify novel co-factors that can be recruited by the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-bound androgen receptor (AR). Nuclear extracts obtained from LNCaP cells, after incubation with R1881, were incubated with biotinylated oligonucleotides bound to streptavidin coated beads. The oligonucleotides contain 3 copies in tandem of the androgen responsive element ARE1 from the prostate specific antigen (PSA) gene promoter. As control incubation, a scrambled version of the tandem ARE1 was used. Immunoblots of the eluents revealed that the AR was bound to the ARE1 oligonucleotide and to a much lesser extent to the scrambled oligonucleotide. Proteins eluted from the oligonucleotides, were separated on a 5-15% sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gradient gel, followed by identification using mass spectrometry. Identified proteins were scored for having one or more of the following known properties: nuclear localization, involved in transcription regulation, involvement in steroid hormone receptor (SHR) function, or specifical involvement in AR function. A total number of 85 nuclear proteins were found in two separate OBAs. Based on peptide counting, we found enrichment of 7 proteins eluted from the ARE1 oligonucleotide, compared to the scrambled oligonucleotide. Taken together with the obtained scores, these proteins are considered putative AR co-factors. One of these proteins, DDX17, is known to be a co-factor for estrogen receptor α (ERα), but has never been associated with AR function. The results indicate that the ARE oligonucleotide-based assay may allow enrichment of new candidate DNA-bound AR interacting proteins. Crown Copyright

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Keywords Androgen responsive element, Co-factor, DNA-bound, Mass spectrometry, Transcription factors
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Wong, H.Y, Demmers, J.A, Bezstarosti, K, Grootegoed, J.A, & Brinkmann, A.O. (2009). DNA dependent recruitment of DDX17 and other interacting proteins by the human androgen receptor. B B A - Proteins and Proteomics, 1794(2), 193–198. doi:10.1016/j.bbapap.2008.11.001