The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among the commensal microflora was examined in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals. A total of 3,995 individuals were screened in two major urban centers. Among Escherichia coli from rectal samples (n=3,284) the prevalence of resistance to ciprofloxacin and other classes of antibiotics was remarkably high, especially in individuals at the time of discharge from hospital. Staphylococcus aureus isolates (n=361) were often resistant to tetracycline (24.9%), but this was not associated with hospital stay. Two S. aureus isolates harbored the mecA gene. Regional differences in resistance rates exist, suggesting regional differences in selection pressure, i.e., antibiotic usage patterns. The results show that antimicrobial resistance among commensal E. coli and S. aureus has emerged in Indonesia.

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Lestari, E.S, Severin, J.A, Filius, P.M.G, Kuntaman, K, Duerink, D.O, Hadi, U, … Verbrugh, H.A. (2008). Antimicrobial resistance among commensal isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in the Indonesian population inside and outside hospitals. European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases: an international journal on pathogenesis, diagnosis, epidemiology, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases, 27(1), 45–51. doi:10.1007/s10096-007-0396-z