Purpose: In children, data on the combined impact of age, genotype, and disease severity on tacrolimus (TAC) disposition are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of these covariates on tacrolimus dose requirements in the immediate post-transplant period in pediatric kidney and liver recipients. Methods: Data were retrospectively collected describing tacrolimus disposition, age, CYP3A5 and ABCB1 genotype, and pediatric risk of mortality (PRISM) scores for up to 14 days post-transplant in children receiving liver and renal transplants. Initial TAC dosing was equal in all patients and adjusted using therapeutic drug monitoring. We determined the relationship between covariates and tacrolimus disposition. Results: Forty-eight kidney and 42 liver transplant recipients (median ages 11.5 and 1.5 years, ranges 1.5-17.7 and 0.05-14.8 years, respectively) received TAC post-transplant. In both transplant groups, younger children (<5 years) needed higher TAC doses than older children [kidney: 0.15 (0.07-0.35) vs. 0.09 (0.02-0.20) mg/kg/12h, p = 0.046, liver: 0.12 (0.04-0.32) vs. 0.09 (0.01-0.18) mg/kg/12h, p = 0.038]. In kidney but not liver transplants, CYP3A5 expressors needed significantly higher TAC doses than nonexpressors [0.15 (0.07-0.20) vs. 0.09 (0.02-0.35) mg/kg/12h, P = 0.001]. In these patients, age and CYP3A5 genotype were independently associated with TAC dosing requirement. In liver, but not kidney transplant patients, homozygous ABCB1 T-T-T haplotype carriers needed higher TAC doses than noncarriers [0.26 (0.15-0.32) vs. 0.11 (0.01-0.25) mg/kg/12h, p = 0.013]. Conclusion: CYP3A5 genotype may explain variation in tacrolimus disposition early after transplant in pediatric kidney recipients, independent of age-related variation. In contrast, in pediatric liver recipients, variation in tacrolimus disposition appears related to age and ABCB1 genotype. These findings illustrate the importance of the interplay among age, genotype, and transplant organ on tacrolimus disposition.

Additional Metadata
Keywords ABCB1, CYP3A5, Kidney transplant, Liver transplant, Pediatrics, Pharmacokinetics, Tacrolimus
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-011-1083-7, hdl.handle.net/1765/33187
Citation
de Wildt, S.N., van Schaik, R.H.N., Soldin, O.P., Brojeni, P.Y., van der Heiden, I.P., Parshuram, C., … Koren, G.. (2011). The interactions of age, genetics, and disease severity on tacrolimus dosing requirements after pediatric kidney and liver transplantation. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 67(12), 1231–1241. doi:10.1007/s00228-011-1083-7