Context: Gonadectomy is avoided whenever possible in boys with 45,X/46,XY. However, no clinical markers are currently available to guide clinicians in predicting gonadal tumor risk or hormone production. Objective: The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that gonadal histology and risk for development of a malignant germ cell tumor are reflected by the clinical presentation of a 45,X/46,XY individual. Design: The design of the study was the correlation of clinical data [external masculinization score (EMS), pubertal outcome] with pathology data (gonadal phenotype, tumor risk). Setting: This was a multicenter study involving two multidisciplinary disorder of sex development teams. Patients: Patients included genetically proven 45,X/46,XY (and variants) cases, ofwhomat leastone gonadal biopsy or gonadectomy specimen was available, together with clinical details. Interventions: Patients (n = 48) were divided into three groups, based on the EMS. Gonadal histology and tumor risk were assessedonparaffin-embedded samples (n = 87) by morphology and immunohistochemistry on the basis of established criteria. Main Outcome Measures: Gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in the three clinical groups were measured. Clinical outcome in patients with at least one preserved gonad was also measured. Results: Tumor risk in the three groups was significantly related to the gonadal differentiation pattern (P < 0.001). In boys, hormone production was sufficient and was not predicted by the EMS. Conclusions: The EMS reflects gonadal differentiation and tumor risk in patients with 45,X/46,XY. In boys, testosterone production is often sufficient, but strict follow-up is warranted because of malignancy risk, which appears inversely related to EMS. In girls, tumor risk is limited but gonads are not functional, makinggonadectomythemostreasonable option. Copyright

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Journal Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Cools, M.B.C.M, Pleskacova, J, Stoop, J.A, Hoebeke, P, van Laecke, E, Drop, S.L.S, … Wolffenbuttel, K.P. (2011). Gonadal pathology and tumor risk in relation to clinical characteristics in patients with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(7). doi:10.1210/jc.2011-0232