Controversies in preconditioning
Preconditioning is an effective mean of protecting the heart against prolonged ischemia by pretreating it with a minor insult, and the present paper reviews various controversies in this highly active field of research. In many models, adenosine plays a role by triggering the activation of protein kinase C. It may work in conjunction with other agents, such as bradykinin, but the putative role of noradrenaline is uncertain. Regulation of the enzyme producing adenosine (i.e., 5'-nucleotidase) has been reported during preconditioning but, because its activity does not seem to be associated with infarct size, it is unlikely that the hydrolase plays a pivotal role. Controversial data have been published on the involvement of mitochondrial ATPase, which may be ascribed to the poor time resolution of the experiments described; however, we do not believe that either acidosis or tissue ATP are important factors in triggering preconditioning. The role of glycolysis in the preconditioning effect remains to be firmly established; opposite mechanisms are activated in low-flow and stop-flow protocols. Although species differences regarding preconditioning exist, they seem to be more of a quantitative than a qualitative nature. The phenomenon could be clinically relevant because evidence is accumulating that preconditioning may take place during bypass surgery and coronary angioplasty if longer balloon-occlusion times are used.
|Keywords||*Ischemic Preconditioning, Myocardial, Adenosine/physiology, Angina Pectoris/physiopathology, Animals, Catecholamines/physiology, Glycolysis/physiology, Hydrolases/metabolism, Myocardial Infarction/physiopathology/prevention & control, Species Specificity, humans|
de Jong, J.W., de Jonge, R., Marchesani, A., Bradamante, S., & Janssen, M.C.W.. (1997). Controversies in preconditioning. Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/8910