Androgen deprivation of the PC-310 [correction of prohormone convertase-310] human prostate cancer model system induces neuroendocrine differentiation
Neuroendocrine (NE) cells are androgen-independent cells and secrete growth-modulating neuropeptides via a regulated secretory pathway (RSP). We studied NE differentiation after androgen withdrawal in the androgen-dependent prostate cancer xenograft PC-310. Expression patterns of chromogranin A, secretogranin III, and prohormone convertase-1 were analyzed at both protein and mRNA level to mark the kinetics of NE differentiation both in vivo and in vitro. PC-310 tumor-bearing nude mice were killed at 0, 2, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days postcastration. PC-310C cultures initiated from collagenase-treated tumor tissue could be maintained up to four passages, and androgen-deprivation experiments were performed similarly. PC-310 tumor volumes decreased by 50% in 10 days postcastration. Proliferative activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) serum levels decreased to zero postcastration, whereas PSA levels in PC-310C culture media first decreased and subsequently increased after 5 days. In vivo, androgen receptor (AR) expression decreased initially but returned to control level from 5 days postcastration on. CgA, secretogranin III, and secretogranin V expression increased in vivo from 5 days postcastration on. Subsequently, prohormone convertase-1 and peptidyl alpha-amidating monooxygenase as well as the vascular endothelial growth factor were expressed from 7 days postcastration on, and, finally, growth factors such as gastrin-releasing peptide and serotonin were expressed in a small part of the NE cells 21 days postcastration. The PC-310 tumors did not show colocalization of the AR on the NE cells in the tumor residues after 21 days. As in the PC-310 xenograft, NE differentiation was induced and AR expression relapsed after prolonged androgen suppression in PC-310C. For PC-310C cells, this relapse was associated with the secretion of PSA. PC-310C is the first culture of human prostatic cancer cells having the NE phenotype. The PC-310 model system is a potential androgen-dependent model for studying the role of NE cells in the progression of clinical prostate cancer. Androgen deprivation of NE-differentiated prostate cancer may induce the formation of both NE- and AR-positive dormant tumor residues, capable of actively producing NE growth factors via a RSP, possibly leading to hormone refractory disease.
|Keywords||*Multienzyme Complexes, Androgens/*pharmacology, Animals, Cell Differentiation, Chromogranins/analysis, Humans, Male, Mice, Mice, Nude, Mixed Function Oxygenases/analysis, Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent/*pathology, Neurosecretory Systems/*cytology, Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood, Prostatic Neoplasms/*pathology, Receptors, Androgen/analysis, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't|
Jongsma, J., Oomen, M.H., Noordzij, M.A., van Weerden, W.M., Martens, G.J., van der Kwast, Th.H., … van Steenbrugge, G.J.. (2000). Androgen deprivation of the PC-310 [correction of prohormone convertase-310] human prostate cancer model system induces neuroendocrine differentiation. Cancer Research. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/9257