Early developmental assessment of children with major non-cardiac congenital anomalies predicts development at the age of 5 years
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Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive and motor development in children with major congenital anomalies and the predictability of development at age 5 years.Method A prospective, longitudinal follow-up study was undertaken. The Dutch version of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Developmental Index (MDI) and Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI) were administered at the ages of 6, 12, and 24 months. The Revised Amsterdam Children's Intelligence Test IQ and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children Total impairment score (TIS) were used at age 5 years. A total of 117 children participated in the study. After excluding 12 children who had a major chromosomal or syndromal abnormality, the analysis was limited to 105 children (50 females, 55 males). Seven groups of congenital anomalies were distinguished: (1) small intestinal anomalies; (2) abdominal wall defects, comprising gastroschisis and omphalocele; (3) oesophageal atresia; (4) congenital diaphragmatic hernia; (5) Hirschsprung disease; (6) anorectal malformations; and (7) miscellaneous diagnoses. Logistic regression analyses served to determine the ability of MDI and PDI to predict IQ and TIS at age 5 years.Results At age five, 83.7% of 104 children had an IQ of 85 or above and 16.3% an IQ of less than 85. TIS was normal in 71.3% of 87 children, while 17.2% demonstrated a borderline score and 11.5% a definite motor problem. MDI and PDI scores showed equal sensitivity to predict IQ (p=0.004 at 6 and 12mo, p=0.001 at 24mo) and TIS (p<0.001 at 6 and 12mo, p=0.002 at 24mo). MDI and PDI were positively correlated with IQ and TIS; TIS was positively correlated with IQ.Interpretation IQ scores at 5 years of age corresponded to Dutch population scores, but TIS scores differed significantly. Early development of children with major congenital anomalies is predictive of development at 5 years, which can guide individualized follow-up for this vulnerable group of children.