Disease penetrance and risk stratification for sudden cardiac death in asymptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy mutation carriers
AimsTo investigate the outcome of cardiac evaluation and the risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) in asymptomatic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) mutation carriers.Methods and resultsSeventy-six HCM mutation carriers from 32 families identified by predictive DNA testing underwent cardiac evaluation including history, examination, electrocardiography, Doppler echocardiography, exercise testing, and 24 h Holter monitoring. The published diagnostic criteria for HCM in adult members of affected families were used to diagnose HCM. Thirty-three (43) men and 43 (57) women with a mean age of 42 years (range 16-79) were examined; in 31 (41) HCM was diagnosed. Disease penetrance was age related and men were more often affected than women (P = 0.04). Myosin Binding Protein C (MYBPC3) mutation carriers were affected at higher age than Myosin Heavy Chain (MYH7) mutation carriers (P = 0.01). Risk factors for SCD were present in affected and unaffected carriers.ConclusionHypertrophic cardiomyopathy was diagnosed in 41 of carriers. Disease penetrance was age dependent, warranting repeated cardiologic evaluation. The MYBPC3 mutation carriers were affected at higher age than MYH7 mutation carriers. Risk factors for SCD were present in carriers with and without HCM. Follow-up studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of risk stratification for SCD in this population.