Suggestive linkage of ADHD to chromosome 18q22 in a young genetically isolated Dutch population
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, highly heritable, neuropsychiatric disorder among children. Linkage studies in isolated populations have proved powerful to detect variants for complex diseases, such as ADHD. We performed a genome-wide linkage scan for ADHD in nine patients from a genetically isolated population in the Netherlands, who were linked to each other within 10 generations through multiple lines of descent. The genome-wide scan was performed with a set of 400 microsatellite markers with an average spacing of ± 10-12cM. We performed multipoint parametric linkage analyses using both recessive and dominant models. Our genome scan pointed to several chromosomal regions that may harbour ADHD susceptibility genes. None exceeded the empirical genome-wide significance threshold, but the Log of odds (LOD) scores were > 1.5 for regions 6p22 (Heterogenetic log of odds (HLOD) = 1.67) and 18q21 - 22 (HLOD = 2.13) under a recessive model. We followed up these two regions in a larger sample of ADHD patients (n = 21, 9 initial and 12 extra patients). The LOD scores did not increase after increasing the sample size (6p22 (HLOD = 1.51), 18q21 - 22 (HLOD = 1.83)). However, the LOD score on 6p22 increased to 2 when a separate analysis was performed for the inattentive type ADHD children. The linkage region on chromosome 18q overlaps with the findings of association of rs2311120 (P = 10-5) and rs4149601 (P = 10-4) in the genome-wide association analysis for ADHD performed by the Genetic Association Information Network consortium. Furthermore, there was an excess of regions harbouring serotonin receptors (HTR1B, HTR1E, HTR4, HTR1D, and HTR6) that showed a LOD score > 1 in our genome-wide scan.