Differences in atherosclerotic plaque burden and morphology between type 1 and 2 diabetes as assessed by multislice computed tomography
OBJECTIVE - It is unclear whether the coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden is similar in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. By using multislice computed tomography (MSCT), the presence, degree, and morphology of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes were compared. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Prospectively, coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring and MSCT coronary angiography were performed in 135 asymptomatic patients (65 patients with type 1 diabetes and 70 patients with type 2 diabetes). The presence and extent of coronary atherosclerosis as well as plaque phenotype were assessed and compared between groups. RESULTS - No difference was observed in average CAC score (217 ± 530 vs. 174 ± 361) or in the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis (65% vs. 71%) in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the prevalence of obstructive atherosclerosis was higher in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 24; 34%) compared with that in patients with type 1 diabetes (n = 11; 17%) (P = 0.02). In addition, a higher mean number of atherosclerotic and obstructive plaques was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. In addition, the percentage of noncalcified plaques was higher in patients with type 2 (66%) versus type 1 diabetes (27%) (P < 0.001), resulting in a higher plaque burden for each CAC score compared with that in type 1 diabetic patients. CONCLUSIONS - Although CAC scores and the prevalence of coronary atherosclerosis were similar between patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, CAD was more extensive in the latter. Also, a relatively higher proportion of noncalcified plaques was observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. These observations may be valuable in the development of targeted management strategies adapted to diabetes type.