Effect of obesity on the outcome of kidney transplantation: A 20-year follow-up
Background: Cardiovascular disease is both a major threat to the life expectancy of kidney transplant recipients and an important determinant of late allograft loss. Obesity is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Methods: We investigated the relation between both pretransplant and 1-year posttransplant body mass index (BMI) with patient and renal graft survival in a cohort of 1810 adult patients. Sixty-one percent of all patients were men; median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 46 years (35-56 years); median (IQR) pretransplant BMI was 23.0 kg/m (20.8-25.6 kg/m); 1 year after transplantation, the median (IQR) BMI had increased 1.6 kg/m (0.3-3.2 kg/m) and median (IQR) follow-up time was 8.3 years (5.3-12.0 years). We categorized BMI as follows: less than or equal to 20, more than 20 to less than or equal to 25 (normal), more than 25 to less than or equal to 30, and more than 30 (obesity) kg/m. Results: Using a Cox proportional hazards model, after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, the relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of death and death-censored graft failure during all follow-up for pretransplant obesity compared with normal BMI were 1.22 (0.86-1.74) and 1.34 (1.02-1.77), respectively; for obesity 1 year after transplantation compared with normal BMI, it was 1.39 (1.05-1.86) and 1.39 (1.10-1.74), respectively; and for change in BMI (per 5 kg/m increment) during the first year after transplantation, it was 1.23 (1.01-1.50) and 1.18 (1.01-1.38), respectively. Conclusions: One year posttransplant BMI and BMI increment are more strongly related to death and graft failure than pretransplant BMI among kidney transplant recipients. Patients with BMI more than 30 kg/m compared with a normal BMI have approximately 20% to 40% higher risk for death and graft failure. Copyright 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.