Parental and home influences on adolescents' TV viewing: A mediation analysis
Objective. To explore the association between home environmental variables and television (TV) time, and the mediating pathways underlying this association. Methods. The current study used data from the longitudinal ENDORSE study. Self-reported data was available for 1 265 adolescents (mean age of 12-15 years at baseline) on home environment (availability of a TV in the bedroom, perceived parental modelling, family rules), potential mediators (intention, attitude, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm towards TV viewing) and TV viewing time. Mediation analyses were conducted using General Estimating Equations and mediation effects were calculated as the product-of-coefficients. Results. Significant overall positive associations were found for the presence of a TV in the bedroom and parental modelling with self-reported TV viewing. Controlling family rules showed an inverse association with reported TV time. Similarly, parental modelling and a TV in the bedroom were significantly positively associated with the Theory of Planned Behaviour variables and habit strength, while family rules showed an inverse association with these potential mediators. In turn, most potential mediators were positively associated with TV viewing. Intention, attitude and habit strength were the strongest mediators in all three associations explaining more than 55% of the overall association. Habit strength alone explained 38.2%-58.0% of the overall associations. Conclusions. Home and family environmental predictors of TV time among adolescents may be strongly mediated by habit strength and other personal factors. Future intervention studies should explore if changes in home and family environments indeed lead to reductions in TV time through these mediators.