Landau-Kleffner syndrome and CSWS syndrome: Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins
This study reports results of therapy with immunoglobulin in children with Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) or the syndrome of continuous spikes and waves during sleep (CSWS syndrome). In a prospective study, children diagnosed between 2002 and 2006 with either LKS or CSWS syndrome were treated soon after diagnosis with intravenous courses of immunoglobulin (IVIg). We compared the results with those reported in the literature and with data from a retrospective survey of our earlier patients. Six children (two girls), aged 4-9 years, were included. Three had LKS, and three had CSWS syndrome. One child - with typical LKS - had been treated with prednisone before (without response). No patient had seizures during IVIg treatment and follow-up. Their electroencephalography (EEG) findings did not improve. Neuropsychological improvement occurred in one child with CSWS syndrome. Three children did not show any beneficial effect; they were subsequently treated with steroids, one with a clearly positive result. We conclude that successful treatment of LKS and CSWS syndrome with IVIg occurs occasionally. However, the improvement cannot always be clearly attributed to this. It might also reflect the natural course of the disease. Although the temporal relation between IVIg treatment and clinical improvement cannot be denied in individual patients, its real value remains to be determined.