Bone resorption inhibitor alendronate normalizes the reduced bone thickness of TRPV5-/- mice
TRPV5 is a Ca2+-selective channel involved in transcellular Ca2+absorption expressed in kidney and in the ruffled border of osteoclasts. Studies in hypercalciuric TRPV5 knockout (TRPV5-/-) mice, which display significantly increased vitamin D levels, showed that TRPV5 ablation increases number and size of osteoclasts but impairs osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The latter is not in line with the observed decreased bone thickness in TRPV5-/-mice. Bisphosphonates also inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of alendronate on the expression of the Ca2+transporters in bone, kidney, and duodenum and, importantly, the bone phenotype in TRPV5-/-mice. Wildtype (TRPV5+/+) and TRPV5-/-mice were treated during 10 wk with 2 mg/kg alendronate or vehicle weekly and housed in metabolic cages at the end of treatment. Urine and blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis, and duodenum, kidney, and femur were sampled. Expression of Ca2+transporters and osteoclast ruffled border transporters in bone and cultured osteoclasts was determined by QPCR analysis. Femurs were scanned using μCT, and resorption pit assays were performed in bone marrow cultures isolated from TRPV5+/+and TRPV5-/-mice. Alendronate treatment enhanced bone thickness in TRPV5+/+mice but also normalized the disturbed bone morphometry parameters in TRPV5-/-mice. Bone TRPV5 expression was specifically enhanced by alendronate, whereas the expression of Ca2+transporters in kidney and intestine was not altered. The expression of the osteoclast ruffled border membrane proteins chloride channel 7 (CLC-7) and the vacuolar H+-ATPase did not differ between both genotypes, but alendronate significantly enhanced the expression and PTH levels in TRPV5-/-mice. The expression of TRPV5, CLC-7, and H+-ATPase in osteoclast cultures was not affected by alendronate. The number of resorption pits was reduced in TRPV5-/-bone marrow cultures, but the response to vitamin D was similar to that in TRPV5+/+cultures. The alendronate-induced upregulation of TRPV5 in bone together with the decreased resorptive capacity of TRPV5-/-osteoclasts in vitro suggests that TRPV5 has an important role in osteoclast function. However, our data indicate that significant bone resorption still occurs in TRPV5-/-mice, because alendronate treatment normalized bone thickness in these mice. Thus, TRPV5-/-mice are able to rescue the resulting defect in osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, possibly mediated by the long-term hypervitaminosis D or other (non)hormonal compensatory mechanisms.