Effects of interleukin-1α administration on intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury, mucosal permeability, and bacterial translocation in burn and sepsis
Objective: To evaluate the effect of interleukin-1α (IL-1α) on the mesenteric circulation, intestinal mucosal integrity, and bacterial translocation in a burn/endotoxemia chronic porcine model. Summary Background Data: Major burn and sepsis are associated with a high mortality, ischemia/reperfusion injury to the intestine, and an increased rate of bacterial translocation. Pathologic alterations of IL-1 synthesis, degradation, and binding to receptors have been reported. Manipulation of IL-1-mediated effects might be of therapeutic utility. Methods: Twenty-one female pigs were instrumented with an ultrasonic flow probe on the superior mesenteric artery and a catheter into the superior mesenteric vein. After 5 days, all animals were anesthetized, and 14 received 40% total body surface area third-degree burn. IL-1α was administered intravenously at 1,000 ng/kg to seven pigs immediately after burn. Eighteen hours after burn, 100 μg/kg Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was administered intravenously. Systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics were measured and blood samples were drawn for blood gas analysis. Intestinal permeability was assessed every 6 hours by measuring the lactulose/man nitol (L/M) excretion ratio. At the end of the study (42 hours), tissue samples were harvested for bacteriologic cultures. Results: Mesenteric blood flow was significantly decreased after burn and endotoxin. Administration of IL-1α significantly improved mesenteric blood flow postburn and post-LPS. Mesenteric oxygen supply and consumption showed a significant reduction after burn. In contrast, animals treated with IL-1α showed an increase in postburn mesenteric oxygen supply and consumption. LPS-induced mesenteric hypoxia was also ameliorated by IL-1α treatment. Intestinal permeability, as assessed by the L/M ratio, showed a 7- and 10-fold elevation after thermal injury and LPS, respectively. In contrast, IL-1α-treated animals showed an increase of only three- and fourfold in the L/M ratio, respectively. Bacterial translocation was significantly increased in the burn/endotoxin group. IL-1α significantly reduced the rates of bacterial translocation. Conclusions: IL-1α treatment attenuates mesenteric ischemia and reperfusion injury induced by thermal injury and endotoxemia by improving mesenteric blood flow and oxygenation. Subsequently, IL-1α reduces intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation after burn and sepsis.