Major dietary patterns and blood pressure patterns during pregnancy: the Generation R Study
Objective: We sought to evaluate associations between dietary patterns and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy. Study design: This was a prospective study of 3187 pregnant women. Participants completed a food-frequency questionnaire in early pregnancy. The Mediterranean dietary pattern, comprising high intake of vegetables, vegetable oils, pasta, fish, and legumes, and the Traditional dietary pattern, comprising high intake of meat and potatoes, were identified using factor analysis. Results: A higher SBP was observed among mothers with high Traditional pattern adherence. Low adherence to the Mediterranean pattern was also associated with higher SBP but only in early and mid pregnancy. A higher diastolic blood pressure throughout pregnancy was observed in mothers with high adherence to the Traditional pattern and low adherence to the Mediterranean pattern. These effect estimates were most pronounced in mid pregnancy. Conclusion: Low adherence to a Mediterranean and high adherence to a Traditional dietary pattern is associated with a higher blood pressure in pregnancy.