Differential clinical responses to everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting coronary stents in patients with and without diabetes mellitus
Background-: Some (but not all) prior trials have reported differential outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention with paclitaxel-eluting stents versus stents eluting rapamycin analogs according to the presence of diabetes mellitus. These studies lacked sufficient power to examine individual safety and efficacy end points. Methods and results-: To determine whether an interaction exists between the presence of diabetes mellitus and treatment with everolimus-eluting stents compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents, we pooled the databases from the Clinical Evaluation of the Xience V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions (SPIRIT) II, SPIRIT III, SPIRIT IV, and A Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents and Paclitaxel-Eluting Stents for Coronary Revascularization in Daily Practice (COMPARE) trials in which percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 6780 patients, 1869 (27.6%) of whom had diabetes mellitus. Patients without diabetes mellitus treated with everolimus-eluting stents compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents had significantly reduced 2-year rates of mortality (1.9% versus 3.1%; P=0.01), myocardial infarction (2.5% versus 5.8%; P<0.0001), stent thrombosis (0.3% versus 2.4%; P<0.0001), and ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (3.6% versus 6.9%; P<0.0001). In contrast, among patients with diabetes mellitus, there were no significant differences between the 2 stent types in any measured safety or efficacy parameter. Significant interactions were present between diabetic status and stent type for the 2-year end points of myocardial infarction (P=0.01), stent thrombosis (P=0.0006), and target lesion revascularization (P=0.02). Conclusions-: We have identified a substantial interaction between diabetes mellitus and stent type on clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention. In patients without diabetes mellitus, everolimus-eluting stents compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents resulted in substantial 2-year reductions in death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and target lesion revascularization, whereas no significant differences in safety or efficacy outcomes were present in diabetic patients.