Proton pump inhibitors and the risk of overanticoagulation during acenocoumarol maintenance treatment
In the Netherlands, several reports have described a potentiation of acenocoumarol-induced anticoagulation by co-medication of omeprazole or esomeprazole and competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 has been suggested as a possible mechanism for this interaction. We conducted an observational cohort study to investigate the effects of various proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on acenocoumarol effectiveness. All 2755 subjects from the Rotterdam Study who received acenocoumarol maintenance treatment between April 1st, 1991 and September 9th, 2009 were followed for events of an international normalized ratio (INR)≥6, until death, end of treatment, or end of the study period. The Andersen-Gill extension of the Cox proportional hazards model was used to calculate risks for repeated events of overanticoagulation in relation to concomitant PPI use. The risk for overanticoagulation was most pronounced for esomeprazole (HR 1·99, 95% CI 1·55-2·55) and lansoprazole (HR 1·49, 95% CI 1·05-2·10). There was also a lower and non-significant risk increase for the other PPIs. We did not detect a modification of these results by CYP2C19*2 genotype. Caution should be paid to co-medication with esomeprazole and lansoprazole during acenocoumarol treatment and possibly also with other PPIs.