Prostanoids suppress the coronary vasoconstrictor influence of endothelin after myocardial infarction
Myocardial infarction (MI) is associated with endothelial dysfunction resulting in an imbalance in endothelium-derived vasodilators and vasoconstrictors. We have previously shown that despite increased endothelin (ET) plasma levels, the coronary vasoconstrictor effect of endogenous ET is abolished after MI. In normal swine, nitric oxide (NO) and prostanoids modulate the vasoconstrictor effect of ET. In light of the interaction among NO, prostanoids, and ET combined with endothelial dysfunction present after MI, we investigated this interaction in control of coronary vasomotor tone in the remote noninfarcted myocardium after MI. Studies were performed in chronically instrumented swine (18 normal swine; 13 swine with MI) at rest and during treadmill exercise. Furthermore, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cyclooxygenase protein levels were measured in the anterior (noninfarcted) wall of six normal and six swine with MI. eNOS inhibition with Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and cyclooxygenase inhibition with indomethacin each resulted in coronary vasoconstriction at rest and during exercise, as evidenced by a decrease in coronary venous oxygen levels. The effect of L-NNA was slightly decreased in swine with MI, although eNOS expression was not altered. Conversely, in accordance with the unaltered expression of cyclooxygenase-1 after MI, the effect of indomethacin was similar in normal and MI swine. L-NNA enhanced the vasodilator effect of the ETA/Breceptor blocker tezosentan but exclusively during exercise in both normal and MI swine. Interestingly, this effect of L-NNA was blunted in MI compared with normal swine. In contrast, whereas indomethacin increased the vasodilator effect of tezosentan only during exercise in normal swine, indomethacin unmasked a coronary vasodilator effect of tezosentan in MI swine both at rest and during exercise. In conclusion, the present study shows that endothelial control of the coronary vasculature is altered in post-MI remodeled myocardium. Thus the overall vasodilator influences of NO as well as its inhibition of the vasoconstrictor influence of ET on the coronary resistance vessels were reduced after MI. In contrast, while the overall prostanoid vasodilator influence was maintained, its inhibition of ET vasoconstrictor influences was enhanced in post-MI remote myocardium.