Sex-related aspects on abnormal glucose regulation in patients with coronary artery disease
Aim: To investigate the prevalence of diabetes and impaired glucose regulation (IGR) in a large cohort of men and women with coronary artery disease (CAD), and to describe the effect of abnormal glucose regulation by sex on symptoms, clinical course, and diagnosis. Methods and results: A total of 4855 patients with CAD (median age 66 years; 29% women) were analysed within the framework of the Euro Heart Survey on Diabetes and the Heart. In all, 967 (28.1%) men and 528 (37.5%) women had diabetes. Of 3185 patients with unknown glucose regulation, 1835 (57.6%; 1400 men and 435 women) underwent an oral glucose tolerance test revealing that 17% of the men and 18% of the women had diabetes and 35 and 39% impaired glucose tolerance or impaired fasting glucose, respectively. Thus, only 19% of the women and 27% of the men had a normal glucose regulation. Women were more likely to have diabetes than men with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.32 (1.13-1.54). The corresponding OR for abnormal glucose regulation was 1.34 (1.11-1.62). Gender did not influence differences in clinical presentation between patients with diabetes or IGR and those with a normal glucose metabolism. Conclusion: Abnormal glucose regulation was more common in women than men with CAD. However, the influence of diabetes on presenting symptoms and clinical course was similar in men and women.