Food questionnaire for assessment of infant gluten consumption
Background: In light of the possibly preventive role of timing and amount of gluten in celiac disease, it would be helpful to have a questionnaire to assess the gluten intake in infants. Aims: Development and validation of a food questionnaire to assess gluten consumption in healthy infants aged 0-12 months (FQ-gluten). Methods: A food frequency questionnaire, previously developed for the Generation R study, was adapted for the assessment of gluten intake. The results of a 2-day food record (FR) were compared with the results of this FQ-gluten. Results: Eighty-seven parents filled in the FR and the FQ-gluten. The number of children who consume gluten and who are breast-fed is higher, reported in the FQ-gluten. The amount of gluten is comparable from the age of 3 up to 10 months, but at 11 and 12 months a higher gluten intake is reported using the FR, probably due to a larger variety of food products not detectable by the FQ-gluten. However, there is a high agreement in the food groups (Cohens' κ=0.6-0.8). Conclusions: This new, short, standardized, validated and easy to use FQ-gluten may be a useful instrument to assess gluten intake in infants, both at the individual and at the population level. The use of this method by investigators in other countries provides the opportunity for a better comparison of the results of gluten consumption in (co-operative) studies throughout different countries.