Decreased antigen-specific T-cell proliferation by moDC among hepatitis B vaccine non-responders on haemodialysis
Patients with end-stage kidney disease, whether or not on renal replacement therapy, have an impaired immune system. This is clinically manifested by a large percentage of patients unresponsive to the standard vaccination procedure for hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this study, the immune response to HBV vaccination is related to the in vitro function of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDC). We demonstrate that mature moDC from nonresponders to HBV vaccination have a less mature phenotype, compared to responders and healthy volunteers, although this did not affect their allostimulatory capacity. However, proliferation of autologous T cells in the presence of tetanus toxoid and candida antigen was decreased in non-responders. Also, HLA-matched CD4+ hsp65-specific human T-cell clones showed markedly decreased proliferation in the group of non-responders. Our results indicate that impairment of moDC to stimulate antigen-specific T cells provides an explanation for the clinical immunodeficiency of patients with end-stage kidney disease.