Reoperations on the pulmonary autograft and pulmonary homograft after the Ross procedure: An update on the German Dutch Ross Registry
Objectives: Reinterventions after the Ross procedure are a concern for patients and treating physicians. The scope of the present report was to provide an update on the reinterventions observed in the large patient population of the German-Dutch Ross Registry. Patients and Methods: From 1988 to 2011, 2023 patients (age, 39.05 ± 16.5 years; male patients, 1502; adults, 1642) underwent a Ross procedure in 13 centers. The mean follow-up was 7.1 ± 4.6 years (range, 0-22 years; 13,168 patient-years). Results: In the adult population, 120 autograft reinterventions in 113 patients (1.03%/patient-year) and 76 homograft reinterventions in 67 patients (0.65%/patient-year) and, in the pediatric population, 14 autograft reinterventions in 13 patients (0.91%/patient-year) and 42 homograft reinterventions in 31 patients (2.72%/patient-year) were observed. Of the autograft and homograft reinterventions, 17.9% and 21.2% were performed because of endocarditis, respectively. The subcoronary technique in the adult population resulted in significantly superior autograft durability (freedom from autograft reintervention: 97% at 10 years and 91% at 12 years; P < .001). The root replacement technique without root reinforcement (hazard ratio, 2.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-4.1) and the presence of pure aortic insufficiency preoperatively (hazard ratio, 2.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-3.5) were statistically significant predictors for a shorter time to reoperation. The center volume had a significant influence on the long-term results. The freedom from homograft reoperation for the adults and pediatric population was 97% and 87% at 5 years and 93% and 79% at 12 years, respectively (P < .001), with younger recipient and donor age being significant predictors of a shorter time to homograft reoperation. Conclusions: The autograft principle remains a valid option for young patients requiring aortic valve replacement. The risk of reoperation depends largely on the surgical technique used and the preoperative hemodynamics. Center experience and expertise also influence the long-term results. Adequate endocarditis prophylaxis might further reduce the need for reoperation.