Restenosis, reocclusion and adverse cardiovascular events after successful balloon angioplasty of occluded versus nonoccluded coronary arteries. Results from the Multicenter American Research Trial With Cilazapril After Angioplasty to Prevent Transluminal Coronary Obstruction and Restenosis (MARCATOR).
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OBJECTIVES: This study sought to compare the frequency of restenosis, reocclusion and adverse cardiovascular events after angioplasty of occluded versus nonoccluded coronary arteries. BACKGROUND: Angioplasty of chronically occluded coronary arteries is believed to be associated with a higher frequency of restenosis and reocclusion than angioplasty of subtotal stenoses. Whether this leads to adverse cardiovascular events is unknown. METHODS: The Multicenter American Research Trial With Cilazapril After Angioplasty to Prevent Restenosis (MARCATOR) was a placebo-controlled trial with angiographic follow-up to determine the effect of the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor cilazapril on the frequency of restenosis. In this trial, restenosis was defined as 1) angiographic reduction of minimal lumen diameter > or = 0.72 mm between angioplasty and the follow-up visit; and 2) > 50% diameter stenosis on the follow-up angiogram. We identified 139 patients with successful angioplasty of a coronary occlusion (Group 1) and compared the frequency of restenosis, reocclusion and adverse cardiovascular events with that in 1,295 patients with successful angioplasty of a subtotal stenosis (Group 2). RESULTS: Restenosis occurred in 36 patients with occluded arteries (29%) versus 264 with nonoccluded arteries (23%, p = 0.177) by definition 1 and in 62 patients with occluded arteries (49%) versus 478 with nonoccluded arteries (42%, p = 0.119) by definition 2. Occlusion was present in 24 Group 1 patients (19%) compared with 74 Group 2 patients (7%) (p < 0.001). During the 6 month follow-up period, two Group 1 patients (1.4%) and six Group 2 patients (0.5%) died; no Group 1 patients and 10 Group 2 patients (0.8%) developed severe congestive heart failure; nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 4 Group 1 patients (2.9%) and 31 Group 2 patients (2.4%); repeat coronary angioplasty or bypass surgery was performed in 29 Group 1 patients (21%) and 232 Group 2 patients (18%); and angina was present in 18 Group 1 and 163 Group 2 patients (13% for both). Eighty-six Group 1 patients (62%) and 853 Group 2 patients (66%) remained free of these adverse events during the 6-month follow-up period (p = 0.513). CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of restenosis was slightly but not significantly greater after successful angioplasty of an occluded artery than after angioplasty of a subtotal stenosis. Although reocclusion was more frequent, occurring in 19% of patients, the net clinical benefit of angioplasty in such patients was similar to that in patients with subtotal stenoses over the 6-month follow-up period.
- group 1 patients
- follow-up angiography
- angioplasty procedure
- lumen diameter