mTOR inhibitors are used to treat renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Treatment response is variable and appears to correlate with genetic alterations that activate mTOR signaling. Recently, everolimus was suggested to be more effective than sunitinib in chromophobe RCC (chRCC), a tumor with frequent mTOR pathway defects. This report presents the genomic and functional characterization of a metastatic chRCC that showed complete response at metastatic sites and 80% reduction in primary tumor size upon temsirolimus treatment. After surgery, the patient remained disease-free for 8 years after temsirolimus therapy. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) revealed 2 somatic variants in TSC2, a critical negative regulator of mTOR: a splicing defect (c.5069-1G>C) and a novel missense variant [c.3200_3201delinsAA; p.(V1067E)]. In vitro functional assessment demonstrated that the V1067E substitution disrupted TSC2 function. Immunohistochemistry in the tumor tissues revealed increased phosphorylated S6 ribosomal protein, indicating mTOR pathway activation. In conclusion, WES revealed TSC2 inactivation as the likely mechanism for this extraordinary response to temsirolimus. These findings support high efficacy of mTOR inhibitors in a subset of patients with chRCC and propose sequencing of mTOR pathway genes to help guide therapy.

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Journal JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network
Maroto, P, Anguera, G. (Georgia), Roldan-Romero, J.M. (Juan Maria), Apellániz-Ruiz, M, Algaba, F, Boonman, J. (Jacqueline), … Rodríguez-Antona, C. (2018). Biallelic TSC2 mutations in a patient with chromophobe renal cell carcinoma showing extraordinary response to temsirolimus. JNCCN Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (Vol. 16, pp. 352–358). doi:10.6004/jnccn.2017.7041