X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a mammalian specific, developmentally regulated process relying on several mechanisms including antisense transcription, non-coding RNA-mediated silencing, and recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes. In vitro modeling of XCI, through differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs), provides a powerful tool to study the dynamics of XCI, overcoming the need for embryos, and facilitating genetic modification of key regulatory players. However, to date, robust initiation of XCI in vitro has been mostly limited to mouse pluripotent stem cells. Here, we adapted existing protocols to establish a novel monolayer differentiation protocol for rat ESCs to study XCI. We show that differentiating rat ESCs properly downregulate pluripotency factor genes, and present female specific Xist RNA accumulation and silencing of X-linked genes. We also demonstrate that RNF12 seems to be an important player in regulation of initiation of XCI in rat, acting as an Xist activator. Our work provides the basis to investigate the mechanisms directing the XCI process in a model organism different from the mouse.

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Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-42246-2, hdl.handle.net/1765/116096
Journal Scientific Reports
Citation
Magaraki, A.M, Loda, A, Gontan, C, Merzouk, S., Sleddens-Linkels, E, Meek, S., … Gribnau, J.H. (2019). A novel approach to differentiate rat embryonic stem cells in vitro reveals a role for RNF12 in activation of X chromosome inactivation. Scientific Reports, 9. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42246-2