Background: To construct an EQ-5D-5L value set, the EuroQol Group developed a standard protocol named EuroQol Valuation Technology (EQ-VT), prescribing the valuation of 86 health states utilizing the composite time trade-off (cTTO) approach, and subsequently modeled the observed values to yield values for all 3125 states. Objective: A recent study demonstrated that a 25-state orthogonal design could provide as accurate predictions as the EQ-VT design applying visual analogue scale data. We aimed to test that design using time trade-off (TTO) data. Method: We collected TTO values utilizing EQ-VT, orthogonal, and D-efficient designs. The EQ-VT design included 86 health states distributed over 3 blocks of 30 states with some duplicates. The orthogonal and D-efficient designs each comprised 1 block of 30 states. A total of 525 university students were asked to value a random block of health states using EQ-PVT (a PowerPoint replica of EQ-VT software), which generated 100 observations per health state in all 3 designs. We modeled data by design and compared the root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values within and across the designs. Results: The EQ-VT design had the lowest RMSE of 0.052; the RMSEs for the orthogonal and the D-efficient designs were 0.066 and 0.063, respectively. RMSE results between designs differed for more severe health states. Some coefficients differed between designs. Conclusion: Smaller designs did not lead to significant increases in prediction errors when modeling TTO data (measuring 0.01 on a utility scale). Resource-constrained countries may use small designs for valuation studies, especially when other types of preference data, such as those from discrete choice experiments, are collected and modeled jointly.

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Keywords EQ-5D-5L, small design, TTO, valuation
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Journal Value in Health
Yang, Z, Luo, N. (Nan), Oppe, M, Bonsel, G.J, van Busschbach, J.J, & Stolk, E.A. (2019). Toward a Smaller Design for EQ-5D-5L Valuation Studies. Value in Health. doi:10.1016/j.jval.2019.06.008