Aims: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a major cause of death and disability due to its long-term macro- and microvascular diseases. Although women with type 2 diabetes have more macrovascular diseases, it is unclear whether there are sex differences in the occurrence of microvascular disease. The aim of our study was to investigate sex differences in the incidence of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Methods: Analyses were performed in the DiaGene study, a prospective cohort study for complications of type 2 diabetes, collected in the city of Eindhoven, the Netherlands (n = 1886, mean follow-up time = 6.93 years). Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for risk factors for complications (age, smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, HbA1c and duration of type 2 diabetes) were used to analyze the incidence of microvascular complications in men and women. Results: The incidence of microalbuminuria was significantly higher in men (HR microalbuminuria 1.64 [CI 1.21–2.24], p = 0.002). Additionally, men are more likely to develop two or three microvascular complications compared to women (OR 2.42 [CI 1.69–3.45], p < 0.001). Conclusions: This study shows that men with type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop microvascular complications, especially microalbuminuria. Furthermore, men seem to have a higher chance of developing multiple microvascular complications. Our results highlight that men and women may not benefit to a similar extent from current treatment approaches to prevent diabetes-related microvascular diseases.

Additional Metadata
Keywords Microalbuminuria, Microvascular complications, Neuropathy, Retinopathy, Sex differences
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-020-01489-6, hdl.handle.net/1765/124683
Journal Acta Diabetologica: an international journal devoted to the study of clinical and experimental diabetes and metabolism
Citation
Singh, S.S. (Sunny S.), Roeters van Lennep, J.E, Lemmers, R.F.H, van Herpt, T.W, Lieverse, A.G, Sijbrands, E.J.G, & van Hoek, M. (2020). Sex difference in the incidence of microvascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study. Acta Diabetologica: an international journal devoted to the study of clinical and experimental diabetes and metabolism. doi:10.1007/s00592-020-01489-6