Variable expression of subclinical phenotypes instead of reduced penetrance in families with mild triphalangeal thumb phenotypes
Backgroun: The of zone of polarizing activity regulatory sequence (ZRS) is a regulatory element residing in intron 5 of LMBR1 and regulates Sonic Hedgehog expression in the limb bud. Variants in the ZRS are generally fully penetrant and can cause triphalangeal thumb (TPT) and polydactyly in affected families. Objective: In thisreport, we describe two families with mild phenotypical presentation Methods: Weperformed a field study for clinical evaluation and sequenced the ZRS for variantsusing Sanger sequencing. Results: In familyI, a novel 165A>G variant in the ZRS(g.156584405A>G, GRCh37/Hg19) was found. Infamily II, we identified a 295T>C variant inthe ZRS (g.156584535T>C, GRCh37/Hg19). Family members of both families who werepresumed to be unaffected shared the variant in the ZRS with affected familymembers, suggesting reduced penetrance of the genotype. However, clinicalexamination of these unaffected family members revealed minor anomalies likebroad thumbs and lack of thumb opposition. As the phenotype in affected patients is remarkably mild, we suggest that theseZRS variants are minimally disruptive for Sonic Hedgehog expression andtherefore can result in subclinical phenotypes. Conclusion: Our study underlines the importance of accurate clinical examination and appropriate genetic counselling in families with mild cases of TPT.
|congenital abnormalities, genetic enhancer elements, polydactyly|
|Journal of Medical Genetics|
Potuijt, J.W.P. (Jacob W.P.), Hoogeboom, J, De Graaf, E. (Esther), van Nieuwenhoven, C.A, & Galjaard, R-J.H. (2020). Variable expression of subclinical phenotypes instead of reduced penetrance in families with mild triphalangeal thumb phenotypes. Journal of Medical Genetics. doi:10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106685