Serum concentrations of Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B were used to assess potential fertility in survivors of childhood haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) after three chemotherapy-conditioning regimens of differing intensity. Of 428 patients transplanted between 1990–2012 for leukaemia and immunodeficiency 121 surviving >1 year after a single HSCT were recruited. Group A had a treosulfan-based regimen (low-toxicity); Group B had fludarabine/melphalan (Flu-Mel) (reduced-intensity) and Group C had busulphan/cyclophosphamide (Bu-Cy) (myelo-ablative). Mean age at HSCT and follow-up and length of follow-up were 3.6, 11.8 and 9.9 years. Mean AMH standard deviation scores (SDS) were significantly higher in Group A (−1.047) and Group B (−1.255) than Group C (−1.543), suggesting less ovarian reserve impairment after treosulfan and Flu-Mel than after Bu-Cy. Mean serum AMH concentration was significantly better with treosulfan (>1.0 μg/l) than with Flu-Mel or Bu-Cy. In males, mean Inhibin B SDS was significantly higher in Group A (−0.506) than in Group B (−2.53) and Group C (−1.23) with the Flu-Mel group suffering greatest impairment. In conclusion, a treosulfan-based regimen confers a more favourable outlook for gonadal reserve than Flu-Mel or Bu-Cy in both sexes. Higher values of Inhibin B after Bu-Cy than after Flu-Mel may reflect recovery over time.

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Journal Bone Marrow Transplantation
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Leiper, A. (Alison), Houwing, M.E, Davies, E.G. (E. Graham), Rao, K. (Kanchan), Burns, S. (Siobhan), Morris, E. (Emma), … Nussey, S. (Stephen). (2020). Anti-Müllerian hormone and Inhibin B after stem cell transplant in childhood: a comparison of myeloablative, reduced intensity and treosulfan-based chemotherapy regimens. Bone Marrow Transplantation. doi:10.1038/s41409-020-0866-9