Pre-biopsy multiparametric MRI is now recommended by multiple guidelines, not only for men with persistent suspicion of prostate cancer after prior negative systematic biopsy, but also at initial screening before the first biopsy. The major benefit of pre-biopsy MRI in the diagnostic work-up is to promote individualized risk-adapted approaches for biopsy-decision management. Multiple MRI-directed diagnostic pathways can be conceived, with each approach having net-benefit trade-offs between benefits and harms, based on improved diagnostic yields of significant cancers and reduced biopsy testing and reduced detection of indolent prostate cancer. In this paper, we illustrate how clinical benefits can be maximized in men with MRI-negative and MRI-positive results, using the PI-RADS Multiparametric MRI and MRI-directed biopsy pathway. From a practice perspective, we emphasize five golden rules: (1) that multiparametric MRI approach including targeted biopsies be reserved for men likely to benefit from early detection and treatment of prostate cancer; (2) that there is a need to carefully assess risk of significant disease using PSA and clinical parameters before and after MRI; (3) do not offer immediate biopsy if the MRI is negative, unless other high-risk factors are present; (4) accept that not all significant cancers are found immediately and have robust ‘safety nets’ for men with negative MRI scans who avoid immediate biopsy and for positive MRI patients with negative or non-explanatory histology; and (5) use MRI-directed biopsy methods that minimize overdiagnosis and improve risk stratification.

Biopsy, Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Multivariate risk prediction, Nomogram, Prostate cancer, Risk calculator, Risk stratification,
Abdominal Radiology
Department of Radiology

Schoots, I.G, & Padhani, A. (2020). Delivering Clinical impacts of the MRI diagnostic pathway in prostate cancer diagnosis. Abdominal Radiology. doi:10.1007/s00261-020-02547-x