Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is the only treatment option available for allergic patients with disease-modifying intention. Both efficacy and safety has been demonstrated for multiple trials in children, adolescents and adults. Though regulatory requirements for marketing authorization have been clearly outlined and an increasing number of high quality trials has been initiated, multiple concepts and details in study design may be further elaborated, harmonized and improved. An international group of experts in the field of AIT has thoroughly reviewed and discussed current concepts and provided an outlook on further improvement especially in the age group of children and adolescents. Emphasis of the group's discussion as a basis for this article was put on (i) the regulatory background of marketing authorization of AIT products including the 'Pediatric Investigational Plan', (ii) patient reported outcomes and endpoints in AIT trials, (iii) considerations regarding the 'minimal clinically important difference', (iv) the role of placebo effects in AIT clinical trials and clinical routine and (v) the potential of mobile Health for future development of AIT. Current concepts in AIT have been optimized throughout the recent decades, but there remains room for improvement e.g., in the topics outlined in this article.

Adolescents, Allergen immunotherapy, Allergic rhinitis, Children, Clinical trials, Endpoints, Placebo,
Clinical and Translational Allergy
Department of Internal Medicine

Pfaar, O, Gerth van Wijk, R, Klimek, L, Bousquet, J. (J.), & Creticos, P.S. (P. S.). (2020). Clinical trials in allergen immunotherapy in the age group of children and adolescents: Current concepts and future needs. Clinical and Translational Allergy (Vol. 10). doi:10.1186/s13601-020-00314-1