The testing effect (i.e., long-term memory is improved more by intermediate testing than by restudying the information) has been studied using a variety of materials. However, almost all testing effect studies to date have used purely verbal materials such as word pairs, facts and prose passages. The testing effect has not yet been established using symbol-word pairs. In the present study symbol-word pairs were used as to-be-learned materials to demonstrate the generalisability of the testing effect to symbol learning. The results showed that there was no difference in final memory-test performance after a retention interval of 5 minutes, but after a retention interval of a week tested pairs were retained better than repeatedly studied pairs. Hence, the present research suggests that the testing effect can also be obtained in symbol learning.

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Keywords Learning, Memory, Testing
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Journal Journal of Cognitive Psychology
Coppens, L.C, Verkoeijen, P.P.J.L, & Rikers, R.M.J.P. (2011). Learning Adinkra symbols: The effect of testing. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 23(3), 351–357. doi:10.1080/20445911.2011.507188