The distressed (Type D) personality is an emerging risk marker for poor health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients with this personality disposition are typified by a general propensity to experience psychological distress. The contribution focuses on the impact of Type D personality on psychological distress, quality of life, ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and mortality in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients and examines the relative influence of this vulnerability factor compared to ICD shocks and markers of disease severity in relation to these outcomes.

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Keywords Health outcomes, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Psychological distress, Type D personality
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Journal Herzschrittmachertherapie und Elektrophysiologie
Pedersen, S.S, & Schiffer, A.A. (2011). The distressed (Type D) personality - A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients. Herzschrittmachertherapie und Elektrophysiologie, 1–7. doi:10.1007/s00399-011-0139-9