Study Design: Questionnaire on impairments, biomechanics of posture and anthropometrics of seating height. Objective: To question the suitability of a higher toilet for the elderly. Methods: The first study is a verbal inquiry held among fourteen elderly of which twelve were living independently in a care institute and two needed help for daily activities. This chapter is a selection of aspects related to toilet height. The second study deals with biomechanics of pelvic floor geometry in relation to sitting posture with in vitro and in vivo measurements. The third study was an analysis of anthropometric data for the determination of the optimal range of adjustable toilet height. Conclusions: Increase of height above the standard seems to be detrimental for defecation because of increase of hip angle and reduction of postural mobility. For standing up firm foot contact is a prerequisite which requires a toilet at popliteal height. Herewith hand grips in front of the impaired should be a basic convenience.

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Keywords Constipation, Defecation, Elderly, Height, Low Back Pain, Pelvic Floor Muscle, Toilet
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Snijders, C.J, Molenbroek, J.F.M, & Plante, R.A. (2011). Biomechanical aspects of defecation with implications for the height of the toilet. doi:10.3233/978-1-60750-752-9-207