In some countries in Europe including The Netherlands, our focus in this paper, restrictive policies have been articulated since around 2001 under the influence of right-wing populist parties. Governments in The Netherlands distanced themselves from multiculturalism and took many new steps to control immigration and regulate integration.
New rules have functioned as mechanisms for filtering against unwanted ‘Others’, including non-Western allochtoons and those from Eastern Europe. Many of these ‘Others’ are deemed to not possess the cultural knowledge or language competencies to (deserve to) enjoy citizenship rights fully; they are seen as at best citizens with an integration deficit, dis-citizens. [...]

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International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS)

Rem, D, & Gasper, D.R. (2016). Citizens and Citizenship – the Rhetoric of Dutch Immigrant Integration Policy in 2011. Retrieved from