This paper investigates the commitment-orientation of HRM practices in female- and male-led firms. A distinction is made between emphasizing commitment or control in the design of HRM practices. To test for gender differences use is made of a sample of 555 Dutch firms. Contrary to what is generally believed it is found that – when controlled for relevant factors related to the business (e.g., firm size, age, sector) – HRM in female-led firms is more control-oriented than that in male-led firms. More specifically, female-led firms are more likely to be characterized by fixed and clearly defined tasks, centralized decision-making and direct supervision of the production process.

Additional Metadata
Keywords commitment, control, entrepreneurship, gender, human resource management
Publisher Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM)
Persistent URL
Verheul, I.. (2007). Commitment or Control? Human Resource Management Practices in Female and Male-Led Businesses (No. ERS-2007-071-ORG). ERIM report series research in management Erasmus Research Institute of Management. Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM). Retrieved from