Product renewal as the outcome of a complex bargaining process
In this paper, it is argued that innovation can be the result of a repetitive, multi-actor negotiation process. We present the case of an environment-related product innovation in a large multinational company which emerged as the outcome of a complex interaction process in which numerous external and internal actors negotiated to safeguard their own interests. This negotiation perspective challenges conventional economic views of innovations, in which new products and processes are regarded as exogenous variables, the outcomes of deliberately planned research, or the combination of technology (pushing) and market (pulling) inducements. Instead, innovation may be a non-linear, unpredictable process which involves multiple actors with divergent interests and which leads to outcomes that are collectively acceptable but not necessarily (sub)optimal.
|Keywords||innovation, negotiation, technology management|
Wijen, F.H., & Duysters, G.M.. (2005). Negotiating Innovation. R & D Management. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/1765/10670