Fundamentals and joint currency crises
It is by now well known that Þnancial returns exhibit heavy tails and are thus nonnormally distributed. This implies that extreme market conditions tend to happen more frequently than expected on the basis of the normal distribution, which is used so often in standard asset pricing approaches. From the point of view of international Þnan- cial stability and portfolio diversiÞcation, the strength of asset linkages during crisis periods matters even more, as the linkages determine the stability of the system as a whole. Several papers talk about increased correlation between Þnancial assets or markets during crisis periods. As has been argued before, the use of correlation analysis is not without problems though. Since the correlation concept is just an intermediary step in calculating probabilities, we prefer to deÞne market linkages in terms of conditional probabilities and the expected number of market crashes.