Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care: Prospective observational study
Objective: To validate use of the Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Emergency departments of a university hospital and a teaching hospital in the Netherlands, 2006-7. Participants: 17 600 children (aged <16) visiting an emergency department over 13 months (university hospital) and seven months (teaching hospital). Intervention: Nurses triaged 16 735/17 600 patients (95%) using a computerised Manchester triage system, which calculated urgency levels from the selection of discriminators embedded in flowcharts for presenting problems. Nurses over-ruled the urgency level in 1714 (10%) children who were excluded from analysis. Complete data for the reference standard were unavailable in 1467 (9%) children, leaving 13 554 patients for analysis. Main outcome measures: Urgency according to the Manchester triage system compared with a predefined and independently assessed reference standard for five urgency levels. This reference standard was based on a combination of vital signs at presentation, potentially life threatening conditions, diagnostic resources, therapeutic interventions, and follow-up. Sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratios for high urgency (immediate and very urgent) and 95% confidence intervals for subgroups based on age, use of flowcharts, and discriminators. Results: The Manchester urgency level agreed with the reference standard in 4582 of 13 554 (34%) children; 7311 (54%) were over-triaged and 1661 (12%) undertriaged. The likelihood ratio was 3.0 (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 3.2) for high urgency and 0.5 (0.4 to 0.5) for low urgency; though the likelihood ratios were lower for those presenting with a medical problem (2.3 (2.2 to 2.5) v 12.0 (7.8 to 18.0) for trauma) and in younger children (2.4 (1.9 to 2.9) at 0-2 months v 5.4 (4.5 to 6.5) at 8-16 years). Conclusions: The Manchester triage system has moderate validity in paediatric emergency care. It errs on the safe side, with much more over-triage than under-triage compared with an independent reference standard for urgency. Triage of patients with a medical problem or in younger children is particularly difficult.
|Keywords||Adolescent, Child, Netherlands, United Kingdom, article, child care, controlled study, emergency health service, female, human, major clinical study, male, nursing care, outcome assessment, priority journal, sensitivity and specificity, standard|
|Persistent URL||dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1501, hdl.handle.net/1765/14616|
|Journal||BMJ : British medical journal / British Medical Association|
van Veen, M, Steyerberg, E.W, Ruige, M, van Meurs, A.H.J, Roukema, J, van der Lei, J, & Moll, H.A. (2008). Manchester triage system in paediatric emergency care: Prospective observational study. BMJ : British medical journal / British Medical Association, 337, 792–795. doi:10.1136/bmj.a1501