Mutations in the ATP13A2 (PARK9) and FBXO7 (PARK15) genes are linked to different forms of autosomal recessive juvenile-onset neurodegenerative diseases with overlapping phenotypes, including levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, pyramidal disturbances, cognitive decline, and supranuclear gaze disturbance. However, the associated genotypes and phenotypes are poorly characterized due to the small number of patients described. Here, we report clinical, instrumental, and genetic findings in an Italian family with novel PARK9 and PARK15 mutations. The proband developed a severe progressive phenotype including juvenile-onset parkinsonism, pyramidal disturbances, cognitive decline, and oculomotor abnormalities. On the contrary, his brother only shows mild abnormalities (pyramidal, cognitive, and oculomotor) on the neurological examination at the age of 31 years. These two brothers both carry a novel homozygous PARK9 missense (p.G877R) and a novel heterozygous PARK15 mutation (p.R481C). The PARK9 mutation replaces a crucial residue for the ATPase activity, and is therefore most likely a loss-of-function mutation and disease-causing in homozygous state. The pathogenic significance of the PARK15 single heterozygous mutation remains unclear. In both sibs, DaTSCAN single photon emission computed tomography showed marked nigrostriatal dopaminergic defects, and transcranial magnetic stimulation detected prolonged central motor conduction time. MRI, including T2*-weighted imaging, detected no evidence of brain iron accumulation. This family, the third reported with homozygous PARK9 mutations and the first with mutations in two genes for atypical juvenile parkinsonism, illustrates that PARK9-linked disease might display wide intra-familial clinical variability and milder phenotypes, suggesting the existence of strong, still unknown, modifiers.

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Keywords ATP13A2, FBXO7, Italy, Movement disorders, PARK15, PARK9, Parkinsonism, adenosine triphosphatase, adult, article, brain atrophy, brain cortex atrophy, cadmium, case report, clinical feature, cognitive defect, enzyme activity, gene mutation, human, levodopa, loss of function mutation, male, manganese, mini mental state examination, missense mutation, neurologic examination, nickel, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, parkinsonism, phenotypic variation, priority journal, pyramidal sign, selenium, single photon emission computer tomography, transcranial magnetic stimulation
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10048-010-0259-0, hdl.handle.net/1765/23486
Citation
Santoro, L, Breedveld, G.J, Manganelli, F, Iodice, R, Pisciotta, C, Nolano, M, … Bonifati, V. (2011). Novel ATP13A2 (PARK9) homozygous mutation in a family with marked phenotype variability. Neurogenetics, 12(1), 33–39. doi:10.1007/s10048-010-0259-0