Usefulness of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock from Acute Myocardial Infarction
Although intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) counterpulsation is increasingly being used for the treatment of patients with cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction, data on the long-term outcomes are lacking. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the 30-day and long-term mortality and to identify predictors for 30-day and long-term all-cause mortality of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock who were treated with IABP. From January 1990 to June 2004, 300 consecutive patients treated with IABP were included. The mean age of the study population was 61 ± 11 years, and 79% of the patients were men. The survival rate until IABP removal after successful hemodynamic stabilization was 70% (n = 211). The overall cumulative 30-day survival rate was 58%. The 30-day mortality rate decreased over time from 52% in 1990 to 1994 to 36% in 2000 to 2004 (p for trend <0.05). Follow-up ranged from 0 to 15 years. In patients who survived until IABP removal, the cumulative 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rate was 69%, 58%, and 36%, respectively. The adjusted predictors of long-term mortality were arrhythmias during the intensive cardiac care unit stay (hazard ratio [HR] 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2 to 2.9) and renal failure during the intensive cardiac care unit stay (HR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 5.1). After adjustment, treatment with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 0.9) and coronary artery bypass grafting (HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.8) were associated with lower long-term mortality. In conclusion, in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock treated with IABP, the 30-day survival improved with time and an encouraging number of patients survived in the long term.