Background & Aims We investigated the long-term efficacy and renal safety of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), administered to patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) as part of an antiretroviral therapy. Methods We performed a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 102 patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and HBV who were treated with TDF. Results At baseline, 80% of patients had a detectable viral load (HBV DNA >20 IU/mL). Among patients positive for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) (n = 67), 92% had a virologic response (HBV DNA <20 IU/mL) after 5 years of treatment. There was no difference between patients with or without lamivudine resistance at baseline (P = .39). Loss rates of HBeAg and hepatitis B s antigen (HBsAg) were 46% and 12%, respectively. Among HBeAg-negative patients (n = 15), 100% had a virologic response after 4 years of treatment and 2 (13%) lost HBsAg. Twenty subjects (20%, all HBeAg-negative) had undetectable HBV DNA at baseline; during a median follow-up period of 52 months (interquartile range, 4163 mo), 19 (95%) maintained a virologic response and 2 (10%) lost HBsAg. Overall, one patient acquired a combination of resistance mutations for anti-HBV drugs and experienced a virologic breakthrough. Three (3%) patients discontinued TDF because of increased serum creatinine levels. The estimated decrease in renal function after 5 years of TDF therapy was 9.8 mL/min/1.73 m2, which was most pronounced shortly after TDF therapy was initiated. Conclusions TDF, administered as part of antiretroviral therapy, is a potent anti-HBV agent with a good resistance profile throughout 5 years of therapy. Only small nonprogressive decreases in renal function were observed.

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Keywords Entecavir, Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, Liver Disease, Nephrotoxicity
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de Vriessluijs, T.E.M.S., Reijnders, J.G.P., Hansen, B.E., Zaaijer, H.L., Prins, J.M., Pas, S.D., … van der Ende, M.E.. (2010). Long-term therapy with tenofovir is effective for patients co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis b virus. Gastroenterology, 139(6), 1934–1941. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2010.08.045