Objective: To elucidate the impact of ovarian stimulation on the intrauterine milieu represented by the cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor profile in endometrial secretions aspirated before embryo transfer. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Fertility center in tertiary referral university hospital. Patient(s): Forty-two patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH analogues were recruited. They participated in both a natural and an ovarian-stimulated cycle for within patient comparisons. Intervention(s): Endometrial secretion aspiration was performed immediately before embryo transfer. Main Outcome Measure(s): The concentrations of 17 mediators known to be involved in human embryo implantation were assessed by multiplex immunoassay. Result(s): After correction for multiple testing, significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor (HbEGF), eotaxin, and dickkopf homologue-1 were present in endometrial secretions obtained in stimulated compared with natural cycles. Conclusion(s): Endometrial secretion analysis provides a novel means of investigating the effect of ovarian stimulation on the intrauterine milieu. The in vivo milieu encountered by the embryo after transfer is significantly altered by ovarian stimulation. Copyright

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Keywords Ovarian stimulation, cytokine, endometrium, in vitro fertilization
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.10.044, hdl.handle.net/1765/27529
Citation
Boomsma, C.M, Kavelaars, A, Eijkemans, M.J.C, Fauser, B.C.J.M, Heijnen, C.J, & Macklon, N.S. (2010). Ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization alters the intrauterine cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor milieu encountered by the embryo. Fertility and Sterility, 94(5), 1764–1768. doi:10.1016/j.fertnstert.2009.10.044