Evaluation of the second generation of a bioresorbable everolimus drug-eluting vascular scaffold for treatment of de novo coronary artery stenosis: Six-month clinical and imaging outcomes
Background-: The first generation of the bioresorbable everolimus drug-eluting vascular scaffold showed signs of shrinkage at 6 months, which largely contributed to late luminal loss. Nevertheless, late luminal loss was less than that observed with bare metal stents. To maintain the mechanical integrity of the device up to 6 months, the scaffold design and manufacturing process of its polymer were modified. Methods and results-: Quantitative coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound with analysis of radiofrequency backscattering, and as an optional assessment, optical coherence tomography (OCT) were performed at baseline and at a 6-month follow-up. Forty-five patients successfully received a single bioresorbable everolimus drug-eluting vascular scaffold. One patient had postprocedural release of myocardial enzyme without Q-wave occurrence; 1 patient with OCT-diagnosed disruption of the scaffold caused by excessive postdilatation was treated 1 month later with a metallic drug-eluting stent. At follow-up, 3 patients declined recatheterization, 42 patients had quantitative coronary angiography, 37 had quantitative intravascular ultrasound, and 25 had OCT. Quantitative coronary angiography disclosed 1 edge restenosis (1 of 42; in-segment binary restenosis, 2.4%). At variance with the ultrasonic changes seen with the first generation of bioresorbable everolimus drug-eluting vascular scaffold at 6 months, the backscattering of the polymeric struts did not decrease over time, the scaffold area was reduced by only 2.0% with intravascular ultrasound, and no change was noted with OCT. On an intention-to-treat basis, the late lumen loss amounted to 0.19±0.18 mm with a limited relative decrease in minimal luminal area of 5.4% on intravascular ultrasound. OCT showed at follow-up that 96.8% of the struts were covered and that malapposition of at least 1 strut, initially observed in 12 scaffolds, was detected at follow-up in only 3 scaffolds. Mean neointimal growth measured by OCT between and on top of the polymeric struts equaled 1.25 mm, or 16.6% of the scaffold area. Conclusion-: Modified manufacturing process of the polymer and geometric changes in the polymeric platform have substantially improved the medium-term performance of this new generation of drug-eluting scaffold to become comparable to those of current drug eluting stents.