Objective: To study the association between antenatal exposure to chorioamnionitis and the neonatal response to surfactant. Study design: Prospective observational cohort of 301 preterm infants of gestational age ≤ 32.0 weeks, 146 of whom received surfactant according to standardized criteria. Fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) requirement (using analysis of variance) and time to extubation (using Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses) were compared between groups based on the presence of histological chorioamnionitis (HC) with or without fetal involvement (HC-, n = 88; HC + F-, n = 25; HC + F+, n = 33) and between infants who developed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) or died (n = 57) and BPD-free survivors (n = 89). Multiple logistic regression was performed to investigate the association between HC and BPD. Results: Compared with HC- infants, HC + F+ infants had significantly greater FiO2requirement and prolonged time to extubation postsurfactant, not accounted for by differences in gestational age and birth weight. Infants with BPD/death had a strikingly similar pattern of increased FiO2requirement postsurfactant. Moreover, in infants who received surfactant, HC + F+ status was associated with increased risk for BPD (odds ratio [OR] = 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-11.3; P = .047) and for BPD/death (OR = 2.72; 95% CI = 1.00-7.42; P = .049). Conclusions: An impaired surfactant response was observed in preterm infants with severe chorioamnionitis and may be involved in the association between chorioamnionitis, mechanical ventilation, and the development of BPD.

Additional Metadata
Persistent URL dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.07.044, hdl.handle.net/1765/27587
Citation
Been, J.V, Rours, G.I.J.G, Kornelisse, R.F, Jonkers, F, de Krijger, R.R, & Zimmermann, L.J.I. (2010). Chorioamnionitis Alters the Response to Surfactant in Preterm Infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 156(1). doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.07.044